Terrence Southern is an award winning Robotics & Automation expert, speaker, influencer of innovation, entrepreneur and philanthropist who is a nationally recognized thought leader, strategist and consultant in the manufacturing automation industry and STEM Education & Workforce Development. He continues to implement strategies to deploy robotic solutions and machine learning technology across the globe. Over the course of his career, which spans over 20 years, he has installed more than 2000 robots on projects the across the world for multiple Fortune 100 companies. Terrence is past participant in the Aspen Institute Roundtable discussion on Artificial Intelligence participant and 2012 BEYA recipient. He is a frequent speaker at industry conferences relating to Robotics & Artificial Intelligence and Youth STEM events. Mr. Southern has been the recipient of numerous awards for service to the manufacturing industry and community at large. In addition, several global publications have featured Terrence’s accomplishments throughout his career.

What is your STEM focus area?

Industrial Robotic Manufacturing and Research & Development, STEM Education and Future Workforce Development.

How did you become interested in STEM? 

Robotics found me during my internship at General Motors in 1999. At that moment, I knew I wanted to be a Robotics Engineer.  Just prior to graduation, I completed my senior project by developing a voice activated robotic instructor that moved around the room while vocally providing grades to students in the class. After 22 years, I have no regrets as it is a career that I love.

Who were your mentors?

I had no mentors in Robotics but I had several in the field of Engineering who kept me encouraged as I walked an uncertain road alone.  Ray Roberts (retired) and Telva McGruder (Chief Diversity Officer). As I have grown in the industry, I have learned to navigate my way to success through networking with various industry leaders.

What is the most challenging thing you have found about being in your field?

When I began my career in Robotics there wasn't anyone who looked like me in my field.  It was very challenging being the Jackie Robinson of Robotics. I often felt like I had to be 10 steps ahead of everyone else to stay prepared for anything possible. That same challenge is what grew me personally and helped me overcome the additional challenges encountered during the process of a successful career.

What strengths would a student need to be successful in your career field? 

Confidence and self motivation to problem solve and be innovative in the midst of uncertainty. 

What words of wisdom would you give to students?

Don't sit back and wait to be invited to have a seat at someone else's table, build a new table. Dream BIG!

Anything else you would like to share?

Due to the lack of representation with people of color in the field of robotics, I founded Illuminate STEM (www.illuminatestem.org) to fill the gap so others can follow in the pathway I created. Illuminate S.T.E.M. provides learning opportunities that ENCOURAGE, EMPOWER and EQUIP historically underrepresented communities to innovate the technical future of tomorrow.

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Janeen Uzzell is the Chief Executive Officer at the National Society of Black Engineers (NSBE), the largest Black STEM community impacting society and industry. In her former role as the Chief Operating Officer for the Wikimedia Foundation, which operates Wikipedia, Janeen drove process improvement and helped launch the Wikimedia Knowledge Equity Fund to address racial inequities in free knowledge. For nearly two decades, she held various roles at General Electric, working in healthcare technologies in some of the world’s most challenging environments. Janeen received her Bachelor of Science in mechanical engineering from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, and an MBA in International Business from Fairleigh Dickinson University. Janeen fuses her passion for social justice and her leadership to shine light on inequality in tech spaces and forge opportunities for others.

Tell us a little bit about your journey as an engineer.

My cousin Lasander Uzzell inspired me to become an engineer. He was the first engineer I had known of; he was 2-3 years older than me, and a mechanical engineer. When I first began looking at what I was going to study in school, he said I was smart, I was good at math and science, and that If I studied engineering, I would always have a job. He said that there weren’t enough women in the space, so I should go for it. That’s why I decided to study engineering.

I didn't know any engineers. I certainly didn't know any black ones and unfortunately, I didn't have the encouragement that I should have received from the leadership at my high school. I went to an all-girls Catholic High School, so there was a challenge when I told them I was going to study engineering. I worked hard, studied hard, and decided to study engineering. And then my advisor at school suggested to my parents that I might be reaching outside of my capabilities and that maybe engineering was too much of a risk with all the physics and math involved. My dad wasn't having it, so I continued studying engineering and earned an academic scholarship to college. Then I went on to become UM Pitas Sigma, which is the Mechanical Engineering Honor Society.

The hardest part of the journey was the academic piece. Engineering is very, very hard. The courses are difficult. The ability to understand the way that technology is currently taught is difficult, which is why Dr. Rochelle, our Chief Programs Officer, is so committed to equity in the classrooms. Even at HBCUs, the language of technology and the cadence at which it's taught can be very difficult to comprehend and understand, particularly for someone like me who needs to consume knowledge multiple times before it is fully set through. So that was a hard part of the journey. Plus, the cost – it's expensive.

So that's my journey. I love engineering. I love technology. I prefer to lead technology, as opposed to being it. I don't want to do the work of design engineering anymore. So, when I left GE, I was the head of the women in STEM, and then I went to work at Wikipedia because I still wanted to stay in tech. I wanted to work in an equitable environment where I could push the buttons of equity in technology. I wanted to push the buttons in a space where technology could be the lever to change the way the world works. I believe without a doubt that the next way the world will be changed from a justice perspective is through technology. And while I was there, we did a lot of very, very, very important work on the platform.

And then I received a phone call from some of the former leaders at GE that I used to work with, my Chief Diversity Officer and some other leaders, that shared with me the opportunity to work at the NSBE. I used to be an advisor through GE for NSBE students that we hired to ensure their success, so I thought that it might be an important thing to do and certainly the right thing to do. But after talking to some of my mentors, I was assured It was the right thing, the right time, and that I would be the right person to help guide us into our 50th anniversary.

I spoke with my mom, who I respect tremendously, she was 89 or 90 at the time, and she used to be involved with NSBE when I was in school as well, and she felt that black students needed to see a black woman – a black woman that had come from NSBE, and that the world should see who we are and who we can become. That is how I ended up becoming the CEO of NSBE and my work here will be to position us for the legacy beyond 50. I don't take it lightly, that as a black organization, we're turning 50. That has happened very few times in history and to set the organization up for success beyond me – my hope is that I'll leave it better than I found it.

What does National Society of Black Engineers do, and how do you serve school age children of color in the exploration and pursuit of STEM?

NSBE does so much and has been doing it for 49 years. Our mission statement is to increase the number of culturally responsible black engineers who excel academically, succeed professionally, and positively impact the community.

The first part of it is to increase, and that's a critical part of our game change 2025 strategy. We're here to increase the number of Blacks in STEM. And that's not separate from our mission that refers to black engineers. It's just that 49 years ago, that was the critical foundation. And we know that the world now leans more into STEM. So, we have a large portion of it, in fact, the largest community in our student membership is now computer science. That's more on the tech side than mechanical engineering – we have science and so many others.

We increase the number of Blacks in STEM by serving school age children. Building our pipeline is the most critical way to increase. Exposing and teaching young Black boys and girls while making STEM relevant and fun is what we do.

Teaching a little black girl how to code by teaching her how to cornrow, which something she already knows how to do. That's what our summer engineering experience for kids can do. So, we're building a pipeline through programmatic work, partnerships, work with NSBE Jr., and our pre-college initiative. We are doing that through new staff we've hired, particularly in our MarCom department where we're leveraging social media and positioning NSBE in a way that is beyond what it means to dress the part, work on the Convention floor, and be able to interview.

You know, when we say culturally responsible, our culture is who we are – so we always want to do it in everything that represents us. We are teaching our younger students what it means to be an “other” in the space of tech, and by “other” I mean anyone that's not traditional in this and in humanity, which are people of color – black people – we are the others. Teaching things like empathetic coding and the power of social justice and technology. Last summer in our SEEK program, we taught design in a way young people understand it.

We have NSBE junior chapters that are sponsored by many black organizations in the Divine 9 and The Links, Inc. And they're able to spend time at the schools with the students, which is important, because these students see people that look like them, that study STEM, that are engineers – and they teach it. These are the people that are helping them solve the problems or showing them that they can solve the problems. They get big audacious projects during the time that they're NSBE juniors and for the school year.

In my opinion, pulling students into the programs is just as important as getting them out of it. And so that's how we serve these Black children.

What can individuals do to support organizations like NSBE?

Individuals can support NSBE in so many ways. The first thing that comes immediately to mind is being an advocate for the importance of our mission and the relevancy of who we are and what we're teaching. Many nonprofit leaders might say that the most important thing an individual can do is give to a mission. I'm not forfeiting that. We definitely need to give. But what we really need as a black organization is to not have to consistently prove the relevancy of why we are here. 49 years later NSBE exists for the very same reasons that our founders started this organization. And so, the advocacy of the importance of what it means to be black, be black as an engineer, be black in STEM and the work that we do.

Also, to individuals that have the opportunity to hire black people in STEM – and not only hire them, but also ensure that they are given powerful work assignments and projects that matter and will transform the world as opposed to hiring them just for the sake of a number. We need individuals that believe in the value of what it means to do this work, because if that happens well, then we won't have to work so hard for the giving. Not to mean that we won't have to work to raise funding because we do need individuals to give to our mission, but individuals will recognize the power of what it means for us to exist, and then the support will be an easier process.

What advice do you have for Black youth who wish to pursue a career in engineering?

Any Black youth wishing to pursue a career in engineering should do so. I personally think that engineering should be a base curriculum for everyone. It is like general studies – basic engineering, not mechanical, not nuclear, not electrical, but general engineering. One and two I think should be general studies and then you can build any other curriculum: communications, economics, whatever else you want to build. You can build it on that. Why? Because once you have the foundations of some of this critical thinking, we need that in all other areas. If you have a desire or wish to study engineering, you absolutely should.

Having a voice in what happens in your community will affect your education, and you're never too young to be a part of that. If engineering is something you wish for, then you should start taking the tough courses now. I would encourage you to do it.

Why is it important that Black youth get exposed to programs similar to ones that the Robotics Education & Competition (REC) Foundation provides?

Programs like the ones the REC Foundation offers are so important for all the reasons that we've been speaking about, but I'll just highlight a few. First and foremost, it's a great way for students to have hands on experience. Engineering is not a “read the book and learn it” type of curriculum. And we saw the impact of that during COVID when our students were challenged to be separated from one another and not in the lab working collectively. So, programs like robotic competitions, the way that they work with educators and the workforce to ready them to both teach this work and then for the students to have a hands-on experience, is the way students learn. It is definitely the way students of color have been proven to learn better. And then for engineering, it's absolutely when you see yourself building something and you see it work and you can understand the mechanics of how something works, that you're able to take that same thought process and use it to solve any other type of problem.

The REC Foundation has touched millions of students in partnership with NSBE, and the possibilities are endless in this collaboration. We're excited to work together, and we value the work that this group does. I encourage family members, mentors and others that have young people with an interest in tinkering, gaming, and all those types of things to get them into programs like this because that is where they're going to learn. They're just going to get water for their mind and food for their soul. And it's going to help to drive that interest even further.

Organization: Motiv Space Systems, Inc.

State: Connecticut

How did you become interested in robotics?

Drawing and sketching art, and taking things apart or putting things together were among my hobbies while growing up. The artistic activities led to an interest in becoming an architect initially. In my junior year of high school, my interest in figuring out how "things" worked led me to choose mechanical engineering as a major area of study in college. At Howard University I developed an interest in robotics (with a view of robots as art in motion) and artificial intelligence, areas of engineering and computer science that allowed me to apply a combination of the things that piqued my interest.

What is the most challenging thing about being in your field? 

The most challenging thing for me about being in the field of robotics is keeping up with and maintaining awareness and knowledge about its underlying science and technologies as the field continues to develop while rapidly advancing.

What strengths would a student need to be successful in your career field?

To be successful in robotics, students need to have a strong grasp on the technical concepts and subject matter or academic disciplines involved as well as in their ability to continue to learn new technical concepts and communicate their ideas and solutions to others.

What words of wisdom would you give to students who are interested in your career field?

My advice to any student is to identify a career, whether robotics or other, that you really think you would like, and to prepare for it and pursue it with persistence. In tough times, find help and continue to work at it. There are typically multiple ways to get around (or avoid) most obstacles; focus and perseverance will usually lead to at least one. To pursue a career in robotics, I would advise students to earn an engineering, computer science, physics, mathematics, or similar degree (and consider graduate degrees such as a master’s and/or Ph.D. in the same or related fields). In addition, I advise prospective robotics students to maintain some awareness of what is going on in the robotics field, what organizations are doing what, and to aim to understand what qualifications are needed for interesting positions in those organizations. Once in the field, striving to excel at what you do or want to do will likely keep you competitive with your peers. But striving further to be better than you are at any given time will likely give you an edge. This often includes doing more outside of school and job assignments to learn and refine skills as well as to build expertise.

Organization: Ron Clark Academy

State: Georgia

How did you become interested in robotics?

When I was a child, I was always fascinated with technology and its daily use in our lives. I would even find myself attempting to fix broken electronics with just a screwdriver in my hand. This passion for tech would lead me to explore the wonderful world of technology.

Who are your mentors?

Zulna Heriscar, the Regional Channel Executive for North America Device Partner Solution Sales at Microsoft, and Diemsk Jean, my older brother.  They have always provided me with guidance and wisdom whenever things got tough.  They also continue to push me and hold me accountable for my dreams and aspirations.

What is the most challenging thing you have found about being in your field? 

The road to success in my career was not an easy one. Being in a field where there is a lack of representation for people of color can be extremely discouraging, especially in college. I would often hear war stories about how some programs and tenured professors were designed to "weed people out". Finding academic support in some of these environments was difficult as well.  These factors along with several others meant that I would really have to find other students and create our own communities of color to support each other.

What strengths would a student need to be successful in your career field?

Students would need to have great creativity, communication, analytical, and problem-solving skills. Having a strong foundation in math and science-related courses is a must as well. Finally, you would need to have the perseverance to fight through the obstacles and injustices you may experience.

What words of wisdom would you give to students?

When it comes to technology, there are creators and consumers of its products. Don't just use technology, understand how it works so that you can create even better technology.

Organization: South Panola High School Air Force Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps, Mississippi Squadron 081 (MS-081)

State: Mississippi

How did you become interested in robotics?

My introduction to robotics happened during a JROTC introductory workshop for cadet instructors. Presenters explained to the group that the mission of the United States Air Force Academy Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Outreach Program is to offer a variety of products and services locally and nationally that effectively engage, inspire, and attract the next generation of STEM talent.

What made you want to start a team/work with students?

I thought robotics would be a cool way to introduce the cadets to innovative technology. Developing a STEM program in the school would introduce students to a wide range of careers. A good STEM education gives students skills that make them more employable and ready to meet the current labor demand. STEM also encompasses the whole range of experiences and skills. I thought working with students on STEM education would bring a valuable contribution to a well-rounded education. Technology also gives learners an in-depth understanding of the world around them.

What has been the most rewarding part of coaching teams?

The most rewarding is a STEM education engages all students in learning by allowing investigative and hands-on activities.  One of the greatest strengths that my team has developed is team cohesion. They work hard to build each other up, and to encourage one another. Other benefits and strengths include problem-solving, critical thinking, creativity, curiosity, decision-making, leadership, entrepreneurship, acceptance of failure, and more.

What advice would you give to anyone interested in getting involved with robotics/starting teams?

I will tell people that are starting teams to stick with it, and if it were easy, everybody would be doing it. So make sure you are prepared for the ride, and have fun while doing it! I will tell students that just like any other sport, practice is important. Even LeBron James goes to practice to improve his skills. Remember not every match may be a win, but champions never quit!

STEM education stresses the value of failure as a learning exercise, which will enable students to embrace mistakes as part of the learning process. This allows students to build confidence and resilience, which will enable them to keep going when the going gets rough.

Organization: STEM Center of Excellence, Inc.

State: Maryland

How did you become interested in robotics?

I began volunteering through my company, UPS, in 2013. I noticed the low participation of African-American students and volunteers and decided I could make a difference by volunteering.

What made you want to start a team/work with students?

I have been a judge, referee, and announcer at competitions. As a Judge, I began to understand the need for coaches to guide the students and let the students solve the challenges. In 2015, a teacher asked if I could help restart her school’s V5RC Team. I realized that if I just follow the process of coaching, the students would get the full experience of robotics. I realized I could raise the quality of coaching and, therefore, the skills and capabilities of the students in the program. 

What has been the most rewarding part of coaching teams?

A rewarding part of coaching robotics teams is when a first-time student or parent realizes the value of the robotics program and contacts me to share a success story.  For example, a parent on one of my elementary school teams bought a robot for her 3rd-grade daughter as a Christmas gift. She sent me a text with a photo of her daughter working alone to assemble a robot.  That was an awesome feeling!

But the most rewarding for me is when a student comes back to volunteer in a program or at tournaments. These are the students that have made a decision to pursue some level of STEM education or career which is the biggest measurement of success. 

What strengths and skills have your students developed?

Do it. There are students who are longing to belong, and this is the perfect space for them. If you need any help, I am glad to offer I have seen an increase in the level of understanding and interest in technology, robotics, coding, mathematics, teamwork, and confidence from almost all students.  When trying something new, students struggle or are afraid to even try. When we get the students to work together and encourage them to try the unknown, they come to understand that they cannot do it all, and do not have to do it all. They realize they can go a lot further by working together and have more success working as a team.

It is a great benefit when a student learns that the only way to success is through failure because it means you have tried and learned. So many students are afraid to consider getting involved with robotics because of the unknown and likelihood of failure. A student who learns to “fail fast” so you can get to the succeeding is a student with a major resource in their toolkit.

Did you have any mentors?

Glenn Speights, a former Senior Software Engineer from Lockheed Martin, was instrumental in helping me set up the curriculum.  I met him at a robotics event where he was serving as a judge.

What advice would you give to anyone interested in getting involved with robotics/starting teams?

Read requirements and follow the process. Read how it works (training material, rules, etc.) and then follow the process. Let go and let the students! The VEX program works for the novice as well as the veteran Technologists.  The key is in following the process!

Organization: Lakeside School District (Lakeside Elementary) Chicot County

State: Arkansas

How did you become interested in robotics?

Becoming a robotics coach for an elementary school was part of the job description for a new position I took. I chose to delve deep and found an insurmountable love of robotics ever since 2017. The team was already formed, but my mentor Jennifer Armstrong (coach for the middle school team) made the transition into becoming a robotics coach much easier. Her passion for the sport rubbed off on me, and it has only grown more after experiencing robotics and judging at VEX Worlds.

What has been the most challenging part? The most rewarding?

The most challenging part was how to teach students to find their love of robotics. Not many students in my area know much about robotics, but once they gained that knowledge they have been amazing at this program. The most rewarding part is being able to offer a safe space to students who didn’t fit into other extracurricular activities. Allowing them to be themselves and foster a sense of self through the robotics program has been the most beneficial and rewarding experience I have ever felt.

How do you create a community within your group?

Each team feels like a family. We see each other more than anyone else, so we begin to act like a family. The middle school teams are like the big brothers/sisters for the elementary school teams and help when they need a solution. They learn so much from each other. They are different but are like-minded which helps them not go astray. It's really a beautiful thing.

What advice would you give to anyone interested in getting involved with robotics?

Do it. There are students who are longing to belong, and this is the perfect space for them. If you need any help, I am glad to offer my assistance but the REC Foundation will help you along the way. Don't be afraid of being new. Just start. The hard part is over and the fun will have just begun.

Organization: Potomac School Robotics, Enginotic 6 Robotics

State: Virginia

How did you become interested in robotics? Growing up, I was always interested in robotics, math, science and actively sought out opportunities to participate in robotics. One of the most pivotal things for me was participating in a VEX Robotics team in middle school. I loved it so much that I continued in both HS and University and beyond.

What made you want to start a team and work with students? It was always important for me to pay it forward in the same way I had many mentors, coaches, and volunteers in robotics do the same for me. From volunteering at events and helping teams to providing support and knowledge for teams, I found a home and place of belonging in robotics. I discovered working with students is one of my favorite things to do. I wanted to start a team when I saw that students who I mentored didn’t have a program to transition to after they left our elementary school VIQC program. I wanted to give them a great experience in robotics in V5RC and beyond because many of them truly loved robotics.

What benefits/strengths have you seen develop in your students? 

I've seen my students' confidence raise in bounds. I've seen their leadership skills grow tremendously, and I've seen a stronger sense of community and wanting to pass on knowledge or pay things forward. I've seen thoughtful and compassionate students grow through my program, and many started great careers in STEM.

What advice would you give to anyone interested in getting involved with robotics?

Approach it openly and wholeheartedly. Like any activity, it requires effort and patience to see the results you want and to learn. Everyone learns and grows at different rates. The goals and milestones you set for yourself should be your own definition of success. It could be learning how to build a basic robot and program it successfully in a classroom, building a robot for a competition, or learning how to apply all sorts of cool mechanisms and coding concepts to your robot. It's all up to you. Give it your all and have fun - that's the important part!

Organization: The National Coalition of 100 Black Women Las Vegas

Team/Program: VEX IQ Challenge

State: Nevada

How did you become interested in robotics?

Marcia: I was able to volunteer at VEX Worlds with my family, and was impressed with the students and program. Seeing and interacting with teams from all over the globe, seeing their robots, and speaking with the students was inspiring. I shared my experience there with Sandra who was asked to be the lead for a youth group with a STEM activity in the city of Las Vegas.  

Sandra: I have a background in technology. I noticed that students in the inner city seemed to be behind in technology. Many of the students had limited access to computers, and definitely no robotics experience. Marcia shared with me about her experience at VEX Worlds, and we decided to bring the VEX IQ Challenge program to our inner-city students. I looked for funding to start teams through the city and various universities. We received a generous donation of 7 robots from the Engineering department at the University of Nevada at Reno. We continued to receive donations to enter our teams into competitions.

Did you have any mentors?  

Marcia: We were each other’s mentors, along with REC Foundation staff.   

Sandra: Whoever I can call on when I need help is my mentor: family, friends, kids, and volunteers.

What benefits/strengths have you seen develop in your students?   

Marcia: Presentation skills, along with collaborative skills. They learn to work with anybody and everybody on the team. Watching them learn to do things on their own, like writing their robot programs, has moved them from saying “I can’t” to saying “I’ll try.”   

Sandra: Students have become more well-rounded. They have learned about voting, money matters, and why it's important to save, as well as learning other life skills. Students also became more thoughtful, reflective, and resourceful. These skills were beneficial when they had to reconfigure their robot on the fly when it didn’t meet the height requirements at a competition.

What advice would you give to anyone interested in getting involved with robotics/starting teams? 

Marcia: Don’t be afraid to ask for help. You don’t have to know everything, and there are plenty of resources out there. The REC Foundation and VEX Robotics have many online resources and support. Also, consider reaching out to local schools for their support as well. There is help out there. Just be willing to ask for it.  

Sandra: These kids will amaze you with their knowledge. They just don’t know what they know yet. We provide opportunities for parents that will introduce their kids to options other than sports. Encourage parents to support their children in the program. Most kids will try anything, and just need someone to care and give them a chance.

What advice would you share with students? 

Be encouraged to step out of your comfort zone. There are so many things in the world to do! Show up and be ready to learn something new.

Calvin Mackie, Ph.D. is the founder of STEM NOLA, a non-profit dedicated to exposing, inspiring, and engaging communities to STEM. His non-profit has engaged over 60,000 K-12 students in STEM through robotics camps and challenges. A native New Orleanian, he taught at Tulane University for 11 years before refocusing his career on entrepreneurship, consulting, and professional speaking. He received his bachelor's degree, master's degree, and a doctorate in Mechanical Engineering at Georgia Tech.

How did you become interested in robotics? When I was nine years old, my uncle bought me an erector set. I built a crane and then a car that ran across the floor. He saw my creations and screamed, "That boy is going to be an engineer!" That was the first time I heard the word and I was convinced that was my destination. From that point, all I did as a kid was take things apart, build things, and sought to understand how and why things worked. I never dreamed of being anything else...except a basketball player.

Who are your mentors? My dad was a skilled roofer and every Saturday and summer I worked with him on the roof. He taught me work ethic and discipline. Entering Moorehouse during a summer camp for incoming freshmen, I met Dean Thomas Blocker. From day one, he referred to me as a doctor and always encouraged me to get a terminal degree. I had no idea what a terminal degree was at the time. At my Ph.D. dissertation defense, I told that story while he sat in the audience! As an undergraduate in engineering school, I met Dr. Carolyn Meyers in a hallway at Georgia Tech. She invited me to tour her lab where I eventually began to do research. From that point, she has mentored me through the Ph.D. and life.

What words of wisdom would you give to robotics students? Stick with it! If it was easy, everyone would be studying STEM and robotics. In the 21st century, the nation will need people who can innovate, create and control automatic machines and robots to perform repetitive and dangerous jobs. The work of getting into and achieving the field is worth it. Your life will never be the same.

The Futurist Alvin Toffler stated, "The illiterate of the 21st century will not be he or she that cannot read or write, but he or she who cannot learn, unlearn and relearn. All of us must become lifelong learners, unlearning and relearning due to the rapid change of technology especially in the area of robotics."

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